rhizophora apiculata uses

The wood of R. apiculata is hard, strong and heavy with an air-dry density of 960-1170 kg/m3. If cut at least 20 cm above the stilt roots, regeneration is without problems. Noordhoff-Kolff, Jakarta, Indonesia. or R. mucronata. More intensive site preparation is required where flooding is limited due to large numbers of crab mounds and where there is severe infestation of Acrostychum ferns. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. In South-East Asia 3 Rhizophora species occur: R. apiculata, R. mucronata Poiret and R. stylosa Griffith. 2015 Aug 18;15:287. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0820-3. The branched stilt roots weighted with stones serve as anchors. Their tangled prop root systems – illustrated in the header photo – are the “trademark” associated with all mangroves by most people (if they have heard … van Vliet, G.J.C.M., 1976. The timber is suitable for making furniture. Rhizophora apiculata Blume Lim Sheh Hong, Darah Ibrahim, Jain Kassim and Suraya Sulaiman A research was conducted to study the anticandidal compound of tannin extracted from the barks of a mangrove tree, Rhizophora apiculata Blume. a Butanol, b chloroform, c ethanol, d…, GCMS analysis of methanol extracts a showed the presence of hexadecanoic acid, oleic…, Antioxidant activity of R. apiculata solvent extracts at different concentration. PubMed:Distribution and accumulation of ultraviolet-radiation-absorbing compounds in leaves of tropical mangroves. Derris trifoliata Loureiro can also be a serious strangling weed. Long-term, multiple-use management plans have to be developed and implemented to ensure sustainable use of the remaining resource. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. In practice, thinning is irregular, incomplete and selective, and poorly accessible stands are often neglected. (Editor): Flora Malesiana Series I, Vol. The sapwood is light yellow, 3-5 cm thick, and very distinct from the heartwood which is reddish-brown and darkens with age. NIH Three thinnings are prescribed in Matang, Malaysia (at 15, 20, and 25 years of age), one thinning in Indonesia. Srivastava, P.B.L., Keong, G.B. Compliance with ethical standardsThe authors declare that there is no conflict of interest to disclose. Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress.In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Photo courtesy of Barry Clough. The root protrudes from the fruit, producing a green, spindle-shaped rod (hypocotyl) of up to 40 cm long. in Papua New Guinea. Tropical Ecology 21: 113-124. may occur throughout South-East Asia as a low, tufted ground cover under the canopy. Planting programmes often coincide with the fruiting season. Large concessions in Indonesia require felling of trees down to a stem diameter of 7 cm in 50 m wide strips interspaced with 20 m undisturbed strips in a proposed 20-year rotation. Leaf samples in the Matang Mangrove Forest which consists of almost pure stands of R. apiculata contain per 100 g dry matter: N 0.4-1 g, P 0.1 g, K 0.9-1.2 g, Ca 1.1-2.0 g, Mg 0.4-0.8 g, Na 1.6-1.9 g. The quantity of tannin in the bark is very variable, 8-40% in air-dried bark. Pharm Biol. Inflorescence axillary (in leaf scar below the leaf rosette), 2-flowered; peduncle thick, 0.5-1.5 cm long; bracteoles at the base of flower, cup-shaped, fleshy, crenulate. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. This study assessed the  |  It is a well-known fact that the generation of free radicals has been associated with oxidative stress. Presence of phenols and flavonoids of R. apiculata was analysed using gallic acid…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts…, Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts using agar-well diffusion method ( a ) and…, FTIR spectrum of different solvent extracts. The system of final harvesting of trees for fuelwood varies between countries. PubMed:Antiviral properties of a mangrove plant, Rhizophora apiculata Blume, against human immunodeficiency virus. In recent years it has been extensively harvested for production of wood chips in East Malaysia and Indonesia. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 413 pp. The best way to regenerate a mangrove stand at the least cost is to encourage reproduction in the period before the final harvest by thinning and by minimizing damage to young plants during harvesting. Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods Gurudeeban Selvaraj1,2*, Satyavani Kaliamurthi1,2, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam1 Abstract— "Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Damaged young trees are capable of recovering by sprouting from dormant buds and bending upwards to form another erect stem. R. apiculata, being among the most easily regenerated and widely planted species, will play an important role in those sustainably managed systems. a DPPH activity,…, Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of S. aureus using DNA nicking assay.…, Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract a on lung cancer cells (A549) and normal…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis…, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining…, NLM Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand. Rhizophora spp. generated in the process of charcoal making has the potential to be used as antifungal agent especia Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid Rhizophora apiculata pyroligneous acid which is a crude condensate produced from the distillation of smoke lly to treat candidal infections. Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Felling of R. apiculata for poles is essentially a thinning operation in which straight pole-sized individuals are cut. Rhizophora in Australasia - some clarification of taxonomy and distribution. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Phenols and Oleanolic Acid from Mango Peel and Their Cytotoxic Effect on A549 Cell Line. In all parts of tropical Asia, R. apiculata is cultivated on a commercial scale for production of firewood and particularly charcoal, poles and tannin. In large concessions of 2000-4000 ha for wood chipping in Sabah, a diameter limit of 10.2 cm is used, provided that 100 seed trees per ha are left. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Rhizophoraceae. Large areas of formerly productive Rhizophora stands have been made unproductive in this way. Rhizophora mucronata is used for the treatment of inflammation diarrhea, and angina disorders by people of India and Burma. produces a tannin that can be used for tanning leather. Epub 2015 Apr 9. Wildings are readily available, as natural regeneration is often profuse. BMC Complement Altern Med. & Chan, H.T., 1986. Tree growth, dynamics, and productivity in a mature mangrove forest in Malaysia. As thinning is a commercial operation, its timing, as well as the selection of tree species and stem diameter are influenced by market demand. Rhizophora apiculata is called ‘bakhaw lalaki,’ in the Philippines, "Thakafathi ތަކަފަތި" in the Maldives, 'Đước' in Vietnam, Garjan in India, as well as other vernacular names. Thinning is important for good stand development. R. apiculata is slightly more common than R. mucronata to which it is closely related. Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2. Flowers bisexual, sessile, yellow; calyx deeply 4-lobed, coriaceous, accrescent and reflexed in fruit, lobes ovate, 10-14 mm × 6-8 mm, concave, acute, brown-yellow to reddish, persistent; receptacle with a disk; petals 4, free, lanceolate, 8-11 mm × 1.5-2 mm, membranous, glabrous, early caducous; stamens mostly 12, sessile, anthers 6-7.5 mm long, acute, multi-loculate, opening with a large ventral valve; ovary semi-inferior, 2-celled, superior part enclosed by the disk, bluntly conical, 1.5-3.5 mm long; style 0.5-1 mm long, 2-lobed. Putz, F.E. Keywords: The ash content is about 1 g per 100 g wood of the stem and prop roots, and 2 g in branch wood. Cookies help us deliver our services. Current rotations vary from 15 years (in firewood plantations in Thailand) to 20-30 years, but may be even shorter. Allelochemical interaction of the mangrove species was speculated to play an important role in dominance in the harsh mangrove environment. R. apiculata is commonly found in most mangrove swamps in tropical Asia, from the delta of the Indus in Pakistan to Vietnam and Hainan. The bark, according to some analyses, contains large quantities of pentosans and furfurol. 5. With the opening of the canopy, the ferns may form up to 4 m tall, dense, continuous thickets, making it impossible for propagules of Rhizophora to enter the area. It is killed by frost and by extended periods of near-freezing temperatures. The tallest trees are closest to … Shows protecting the mitochondrial DNA damage of, Methanolic extracts induces the apoptosis in A549 cells and confirmed by AO/EB staining (. Rhizophora apiculata is a least studied mangrove-based plant that has been used in the traditional medicine of Southeast Asia for its healing properties. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant. After extraction of the tannins, the ash mainly consists of calcium carbonate (70%) and lime (18%) and can be used as fertilizer. Rhizophora apiculata and Acrostichum aureum are a common mangrove species in Malaysia. Rhizophora apiculata is mostly preferred for replanting programmes at mangrove sites in Southeast Asia due to its multitude of uses. The tannin of Rhizophora is associated with a substance which darkens gradually; it is used as a deep brown or black dye. Burma (Myanmar): pyoo. Accepted Name Plantae > Tracheophyta > Equisetopsida C. Agardh > Malpighiales Juss. The methanol extract effectively inhibited the growth and induces the apoptosis through ROS generation and sensitizes the mitochondrial membrane potential of A549 lung cancer cells. The botany of mangroves. Insects have occasionally been observed foraging for pollen. In Malaysia, stick thinning is practised. Occasionally, bagworms and larvae of the moth Strelote lipara cause localized defoliation of trees and seedlings. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. Hou, D., 1958. Ecological Research 3: 227-238. They can be distinguished in the field by some easily observed characters: bark grey, almost smooth, with vertical fissures in R. apiculata; in R. mucronata the bark is nearly black or reddish, rough or sometimes scaly. One-seeded fruits start to germinate when still hanging on the tree. Eventually, the seedling falls from the fruit, floats with the high tide and establishes if it reaches a suitable site. Growth rings and parenchyma are indistinct. Hypocotyl cylindrical to club-shaped, up to 40 cm × 1.2 cm before falling, often slightly curved, more or less blunt, smooth and shining, green tinged with red. Average annual increase in diameter over a 30-year period in Matang, Malaysia, was 0.32 cm. Agroforestry Uses: A part of the mangrove swamps, the tree helps to protect inland areas from the effects of the ocean, including stabilizing the shore line and giving protection from strong winds and storms. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. PubMed:Growth of a mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) seedlings as influenced by GA3, light and salinity. Thailand and Indonesia adopt strip-felling, the Philippines and East Malaysia practise minimum diameter harvesting, while clear-felling has been traditionally carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Media in category "Rhizophora apiculata"The following 9 files are in this category, out of 9 total. In the absence of hurricanes and chain saws, individual trees may reach 40m or more. Rhizophora apiculata. Initially, the phenolic and flavonoid content was quantified in solvent extracts, and gallic acid and rutin were used as a control, respectively. & Muktar, A., 1987. Ninety Rhizophora apiculata leaf samples were collected from different compartments (18, 31, 71, 74, 42 and 55) based on tree age and management. 447 pp. 2017 Ecophysiological responses of young mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata (Blume) to … Mangrove-based Rhizophora apiculata was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Singapore: bakau minyak, red-tree. The in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts showed excellent antioxidant potential, about 84% of DPPH free-radical scavenging, 76% of hydrogen peroxide, 82% of hydroxyl radical scavenging, and 80% of reducing power. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The wood of R. apiculata can be split easily and has a high energy value, making it in great demand as firewood and for making charcoal. and. stands. Further, antimicrobial … Rays are numerous, straight, forming conspicuous silvery grains, narrower than the pores, and visible to the naked eye. Tamai, S. & Iampa, P., 1988. Rhizophora apiculata is distinguished from R. × lamarckii and R. × annamalai plus other IWP species by swollen (wider than long), corky br own bracts, one inflorescence The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential. pp. Taken together, the results showed that the solvent extracts of R. apiculata could be potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. The present study is designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Rhizophora apiculata . Rhizophora hypocotyls can be eaten after extraction of the tannin, but this is probably only of importance in times of famine. Seedlings tend to be taller in shade and produce fewer roots. Leaves decussate, rosette-like at the end of twigs; stipules lanceolate, 4-8 cm long, conspicuous, caducous; petiole 1.5-3 cm long, reddish; blade entire, elliptical-oblong to sublanceolate, 7-18 cm × 3-8 cm, leathery, green and shiny, apex acute to apiculate, base cuneate, veins distinct above, obscure beneath, glabrous with minute, scattered black corky warts on the lower surface, visible on older or dried leaves. Fruit an ovoid or inversely pear-shaped berry, 2-3.5 cm long, rather rough, brown. Few production statistics from natural or planted stands are available. This process involves selecting a well-formed tree and felling all pole-sized trees around it within a radius drawn by a stick 1.2-1.8 m long. eCollection 2020. Srivastava, P.B.L., Majid, N.M. & Shariff, A.H., 1980. FTIR analysis of solvent extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds at 3409-3430 cm-1 that actively involved in various applications including antioxidant and anticancer activities. HHS Other Uses The bark is an important local source of tannin Seedlings may retain their viability for several months. Anticancer activity; Antioxidant activity; DNA nicking assay; Flavonoids; Rhizophora apiculata. Natural regeneration is often good, provided sufficient seed trees are left after harvesting. In some plantations, long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascularis) and grapsid crabs (Sesarma spp.) The bark of Rhizophora spp. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. Molecules. Leiden Botanical Series 3: 20-75. Branchlets swollen at the nodes, solid and pithy. Main agroforestry usesSoil stabilization, coastal protection, wildlife/marine habitat for marine fauna. Chapman, V.J., 1976. 2013 Mar;11(2):149-57. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60042-4. Check other web resources for Rhizophora apiculata Blume : PLANTS: USDA-NRCS Database of Plants of the United States and its Territories ; Thailand has prescribed the maintainance of a 10 m uncut strip along waterways to reduce the effects of waves and currents on regeneration. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that the highly significant effect of antioxidant activity depends on the concentration of extracts. R. stylosa has broadly elliptical leaf blades, up to 12 cm × 7 cm, flowers with styles 4-6 mm long and the hypocotyl up to 30 cm long. Total aboveground dry matter has been estimated to be 160-190 t/ha in 15-year-old stands in Thailand and 257 t/ha in a 28-year-old stand in Peninsular Malaysia. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. Tropical Ecology 28: 274-288. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Propagules of Rhizophora spp. Tomlinson, P.B., 1986. This site needs JavaScript to work properly.

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