In some areas the ground under the tracks is darkly shaded, indicating that it is dirty. In this lesson, children will find out all about how the railways have continued to develop beyond the Industrial Revolution, up to the present day and beyond. Historian David Newsome describes Dicken’s brush with death: Dickens himself experienced an appalling accident in 1865, traveling from Folkestone to London, when approaching the viaduct at Staplehurst at a speed of fifty miles an hour on a downward gradient. the younger day; Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. And the straw cottage to a palace turns, The individual worker is also dissolved. Many worried that the enormous cuttings and embankments rendered necessary by the weakness of early locomotive engines would subside, taking houses and people along with them. Within each image there are several aspects that exemplify this changing relationship: the portrayal of people, the representation of the smoke, the presence or lack there of nature, and the depiction of the train. Or disappearing; … (p. 2, Schwartz). have a vested interest in the rails. Even those of the old way of life, a life based on a dependence on and inter-relatedness with nature, have taken time to pause and admire the train. [Pamphlet] London: Effingham Wilson, Railway Times Office, 1846. With the advent of new technological advances like the invention of the train, there was a shift over time from glamorizing the train to the train becoming a mundane part of everyday life. In 1868, Herbert Spencer published an essay on “Railway Morals and Railway Policy” in his collection Essays: Moral, Political, and Aesthetic. Many recognized their advent as the most important development of the age. The thought that the railways might come to Windermere and the Lakes District filled him with dread. Hangs permanent, and plentiful as wreaths She stresses time and again the brutality of Bacon’s attitude toward nature as a mere object. 4.5 15 customer reviews. De-emphasizing excitement from both the workers and the surrounding space, the machine draws us in with its miraculous capabilities. Railways were not new in pre-industrial Britain. 12/6/99. Steam locomotives were more commonplace and many of the areas of Britain were being linked by train, allowing people to move more easily from place to place. The railway finance mess, as described above by essayist Herbert Spencer, was also seen as a detriment to public welfare, and was indeed a major consideration in the scheme to nationalize the railways. Undoubtedly, the progression of the railways sparked the industrial revolution in Britain, as they altered the manner in which people lived. While Merchant believes that science was the downfall of nature, Thomas seems to think that it actually breathed new life into the old organic view, which had been smothered by anthropocentric interpretations of the Bible and other theological beliefs. Later in his appeal, Godwin manipulates the growing nationalism of the times by stating that each man can help better Britain by supporting rail development. ed. The lines of the tracks are clearly defined as are the individual components of each car, particularly the wheels of the engines. We follow Bacon through Merchant’s book as one of the ringleaders of the movement to mechanize and de-spiritualize nature. The beauty of the machine as a regular system of interacting parts was enhanced by theorists as well as mechanical illustrators. In a single drop of water were found entire worlds of tiny microorganisms, completely indifferent to human activity (167). II. He was strongly opposed to the principles of Utilitarianism as espoused by Benthamites, and believed that nature should be appreciated for its own sake, and not as a resource to be exploited for a vastly increasing and irreverent humanity. The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history which was marked by a shift in the world from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing.It brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. Andrew Ure, “The Blessings of the Factory System” from The Philosophy of Manufactures, 1835, as cited in editor Alasdair Clayre’s Nature and Industrialization, Oxford University Press, 1977, p.71. Wordsworth led opposition against “contamination” of the Lakes District. Western Civilization: A Brief History. From their comfortable perch, these entrepreneurs admire the machine, just as a farmer comments on livestock. The Liverpool to Manchester railway provided the management blueprint for later development, creating a permanent staff and recognizing the potential of passenger travel. The Industrial Revolution and the Railway System. This was most likely due to the fact that they related to his line of work. But as time went on, new interpretations of the Bible and, perhaps most importantly, new scientific discoveries started to change the paradigm that mankind alone occupied the throne of the world. There was a second Railway Mania between 1844 and 1846 that was characterized by another rush of speculation on projected lines. Also of importance for our analysis, in contrast to a light portion of the sky on the left side of the image much of the sky is shaded in dark gray. However, perhaps the strongest voice against the railways is the great Romantic, Wordsworth himself, whose losing battle to preserve the Lakes District consumed his last years. The second passenger line, the Manchester-Liverpool, opened in 1830. Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. This led him to conclude that the Lakes district was just as worthy of saving, Sacred as a relic of the devotion of our ancestors deserves to be kept, there are temples of Nature, temples built by the Almighty, which have still higher claim to be left un-violated. The rise of day-trips and vacations 3. As a primary source the Appeal to the Public is a gem. Railways such as the London and Birmingham or the Liverpool and Manchester paid dividends at a rate of 10 percent per annum, the Stockton and Darlington paid 15 percent. 1750s. 12/6/99. The men who built the railways In his first letter to the Morning Post published on October 16, 1844, Wordsworth first claimed that there was no need for a rail in close proximity to the Lakes district. When we observed the first two images our definition of nature included the following things: the ground, hills, trees, clouds and the sky itself. The upper-class entrepreneur understood the machine as a vehicle for increased productivity. (40). And, wheresoe’er the traveler turns his steps, At the opening of the railway, large crowds saw chief engineer George Stephenson at the controls of ‘Locomotion’, the locomotive built by Robert Stephenson & Co, as it pulled 36 wagons to the Stockton Terminus. Great Britain, a small island, had well over 60 percent of railroads in Europe in 1840, but a much smaller percentage, even though its absolute amount of track increased tenfold, by 1900. In the great legacy of English botanical drawings the machine is classified as an organism with like scientific clarity. Consuming Nature: Wordsworth and the Kendal and Windermere Railway Controversy [Journal Article] Modern Language Quarterly. Unlike Image 1, in this image there are no upper or middle class observers to be found, instead there are only a few people who appear to be part of a working class as they stand on or near the tracks. This narrow perspective brings Godwin’s analogy to the persecution of Gallileo back to mind. at first. George Rivière describes it best in his article for the magazine titled L’impressioniste. With one desire. The works of Carolyn Merchant and Keith Thomas pertain to the same subject matter and even to the same time period. The railway will intrude upon this ‘temple’ as Wordsworth sees it. English Railways: Their Development and Their Relation to the State. Perhaps someone observing this painting in the late nineteenth century would think little of the fact that the hill depicted in this image has been scraped or blasted away. Since the painting depicts the city, there are no obvious signs of nature. They did not cause industrialization and had no impact on the changing locations of industries as they only developed after 1830 and were initially slow to catch on.
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